Typhoid fever: types, symptoms, causes, treatment, diagnosis, risks,

What is typhoid fever?

Typhoid fever is an infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. This germ affects the intestinal tract and bloodstream. It is a serious disease associated with fever caused by the bacteria Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes less severe disease. The bacteria are acquired by human carriers in water or food and then spread to other people in the area.

The incidence of typhoid fever in the United States has declined markedly since the early 1900s, when tens of thousands of cases were reported in the United States. Mexico and South America. This improvement is the result of better environmental sanitation. India, Pakistan and Egypt are also known as high-risk areas for developing the disease. Worldwide, typhoid fever affects more than 21 million people annually, and approximately 200,000 die from the disease.

How is typhoid tested?

In the initial stage, the patient’s treatment is started after examining his blood sample. Apart from this, the presence of typhoid bacteria in the patient’s body is detected by doing stool test of the patient. Widal test is also a popular method of testing typhoid, but sometimes even after typhoid is cured, Widal test remains positive in the patient’s blood for years. For this, getting stool and typhoid test done is a better option.

types of typhoid :

Following are the major types of typhoid:

Typhoid Fever: This is the most common type of typhoid and is caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. Its symptoms include fever, stomach pain, vomiting, sweating etc.

Paratyphoid Fever: It is caused by the bacteria Salmonella Paratyphi causing fever, stomach pain and other symptoms. It is less severe than the symptoms of typhoid.

Abdominal Typhus: It is accompanied by symptoms of fever as well as pain in the area around the stomach.

Diarrheal Typhoid: This type has symptoms of diarrhea along with fever.

Non-Typhoidal Salmonellosis: This is another type of infection caused by Salmonella bacteria characterized by fever, stomach pain, and diarrhea.

What should be eaten in typhoid?

It is very important to be cautious while choosing diet in typhoid as the right diet can help in reducing the infection and maintaining the strength of the body. Here are some dietary suggestions that can be consumed during typhoid:

1. Nutritious food items: Include nutritious food items in your diet such as pulses, rice, vegetables, fruits, curd etc.

2. Protein-rich diet: Including protein sources like meat, fish, eggs, cheese etc. can maintain the strength of the body.

3. Water: Quench your thirst completely by drinking water. Drinking safe and clean water can provide strength to fight infection.

4. Liquid diet: In case of diarrhea or vomiting, consuming small amounts of water, salt water, lemon water, broth, tea etc. throughout the day can fulfill the essential nutritional needs of the body.

5. Soup and porridge: Typhoid patients can be advised to eat light diet like soup and porridge, which can help their digestion.

 6. Semolina, bread, toast: Typhoid patients can also eat these foods comfortably.

7. Fruits and vegetables: Prepare them by washing them thoroughly before consumption and take proper safety during peeling or cutting.

Symptoms of typhoid;

Typhoid is a dangerous infectious disease usually caused by contaminated water and food, which contains the bacteria Salmonella Typhi. The disease manifests with fever, abdominal pain and other symptoms. Following are the main symptoms of typhoid:

Fever: The main symptom of typhoid is fever which starts mild and increases gradually. The fever usually remains high over the past week and may persist for a long time.

Headache: Headache is also a common symptom in typhoid, which can cause headache and heaviness.

Stomach pain: There is a feeling of pain and inability in the stomach, which is due to infection in the inner part of the stomach.

Hollowness: In typhoid, your appetite may decrease and you may feel hollow.

Fatigue: In typhoid, you may feel very tired, due to which you may have difficulty in physical work.

Diarrhea or constipation: Stomach problems such as diarrhea or constipation can also be included in the symptoms of typhoid.

 Yellowness of eyes: In typhoid, the color of the eyes and skin of the patient may become yellow, which is called jaundice.

due to typhoid :

The causes of typhoid can be as follows –

Infection through food water: Typhoid bacteria are usually transmitted through contaminated water and food. If you drink contaminated water or consume food that has not been properly cleaned, your risk of getting typhoid increases.

Eating with unclean hands: Typhoid fever can also spread by eating without washing hands with soap and water.

Contact with an infected person: If you have contact with a typhoid infected person and the bacteria from their body gets transferred to your hands or food water, you are at risk of getting the infection.

Higher prevalence in children: The prevalence of typhoid is higher in children because their digestive system is not fully developed.

In how many days does typhoid get cured?

If typhoid fever is detected in the early stages, the doctor will give you a course of antibiotic pills. Most people need to take these for 7 to 14 days. Your symptoms should start to improve within 2 to 3 days of taking the antibiotic. But it is very important that you finish the entire course of the antibiotic so that the bacteria are completely eliminated from your body.

Disadvantages of typhoid –

  • inflammation of the heart muscle
  • Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and valves
  • pneumonia
  • inflammation of pancreas
  • kidney infection or bladder infection
  • Infection and inflammation of the membranes and fluid around your brain and spinal cord (meningitis).
  • mental problems

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